The most serious soil pollution mainly is divided into two large, one is the organic pollutants, including petroleum pollutant type, such as pahs, pesticides, organochlorine, second is the heavy metal pollution, mainly contain the carcinogenic heavy metals such as copper, lead, chromium, excessive pollution. Ethyl lactate application on soil pollution processing is mainly formed with other organic matter to a system of pollution repair, are now known to the application direction of basically has two: one is of vegetable oil and lactic acid ethyl ester compound to form a system, the main processing chlorinated organic matter in soil pollution and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other organic pollution.Second, ethyl lactate and organic chelating agent to form composite system, mainly used in situ leaching treatment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals pollution. 1. Ethyl lactate with vegetable oil, emulsifier and some other additives according to certain proportion of eluent dealing with soil pollution.Mainly vegetable oil as the anaerobic reductive or auxiliary reagents repair organic matter (such as chlorinated organic solvent and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) contaminated soil.. 2. Ethyl lactate - EDDS/EDTA system of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons/heavy metals compound pollution of soil restoration.To solve the complex pollution of soil heavy metals and organic pollutants to fix the problem at the same time, introducing ethyl lactate soil restoration areas, the development of lactic acid ethyl ester - organic ligand (EDDS/EDTA) - compound leaching water system, the research on the heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and its effect, the mechanism of action and the composite soil bioremediation eluent recycling, on the basis of established a relatively economic and effective green soil leaching technology.
Lactate esters’ application in oil explorationLactate esters is a green biological product which was synthesized from pure natural and renewable resources such as corn, has the characteristics of renewable, degradable, high boiling point, low volatility, favorable smell and good biocompatibility. In the oil industry, lactate esters mainly used in two areas: 1) as a kind of chemical additives, lactate esters mixed with other chemicals is used to improve oil recovery rate, 2) as a kind of environmental protection solvent, lactate esters blending with other products is used to clean the oil pipeline. I. Lactate esters improve oil recovery rate1. Three stages of oil recovery：Extracting oil from oil layer can be divided into three stages: 1) Primary oil recovery (POR), extracting oil relying on the formation of natural forces, oil recovery rate is below 30%, 2) Secondary oil recovery (SOR), extracting oil using the water injection, gas injection technology to add oil reservoir energy, oil recovery rate can be increased to 40%~50%, 3) Enhanced Oil Recover (EOR), Using physical chemical and biological technology to strengthen the exploitation of remaining reserves, can make the original recovery to 80%~ 85%.Enhanced Oil Recover (EOR), can be divided into four categories, one is the thermal driving, including steam drive, combustion of oil in-situ, two is miscible driving, including CO2 miscible, hydrocarbon miscible and other inert gases miscible driving, Three is chemical driving, including polymer driving, surfactant driving, alkaline water driving, and concentrated acid injection driving, Four is microbial oil recovery, including biological microorganisms, microbial surfactant driving.According to the production operation process, oil recovery using chemical agent can be divided into: chemical agent for improving the recovery efficiency, wax and wax remover, chemical agent for fracturing fluid, chemical agent for acidizing fluid, chemical agent for water plugging or "profile", chemical agent for oil well acid-protecting, chemical agent for preventing damage on address.2. Lactate esters’ application in oil recovery Lactate ester is mainly used in the third stage: Enhanced Oil Recover (EOR), is mainly used in the third oil recovery methods, that is, surfactant flooding or concentrated acid injection driving in the chemical driving. Lactate ester may be as a kind of acidizing fluid additive used in conjunction with other chemicals.3. Actual application steps of lactate ester in oil recoveryFirstly, Injecting temporary plugging agent plug the upper of drilling well.Second, injecting into strong acid to lower level in order to corrode rock, which will form large channel.Thirdly, injecting into lactic acid ester to the bottom, lactate ester dissolve into carboxylic acid and water under high temperature high press, carboxylic acid gets reaction with calcium and magnesium icon, which can open a lot of small holes.Acheivement:improve the reservoir permeability and expand the oil drainage area, increase oil production capability. Finally,this product degrade into carbon dioxide and water, it is safe and environment friendly. II. Lactate ester clean oil pipelineThe characteristics of lactate ester as solvent in cleaning industry:1. Good environmental performance: It’s non-toxic, environmental, biodegradable, washing waste water can be directly discharge to environment.2. Strong solvent power: Strong solvency in resin, grease and water-soluble dirt.3. Perfect wetting ability: Good wetting ability on the surface to be cleaned. The surface has good hydrophily after cleaned. It possesses many diverse properties: disperse, emulsify, foam, wetting, solubilizing and so on.4. Good compatibility: Lactate esters can miscible with water, and has good compatibility with other organic solvent. It can be well combined with other cleaning composition in system.5. High price ratio: Compared with other organic agent, lactate esters is low loss and cost-effective, and has no adverse effect on the object to be cleaned. III. Lactate esters’ brief introduction1. Methyl Lactate: Description:Methyl-L-lactate is the methyl ester deriving from lactic acid which is producedthrough the bio-fermentation of corn and is featured in high optical purity, colorless clear liquid, light characteristic odor, it’s miscible with most organic solvents, and can completely dissolve in water. Product Information:Trade Name Methyl lactateCAS No. 27871-49-4HS No. 2918110000Hazard Grade 3 (Packing group III)Molecular formula C4H8O3 Technical Index ItemStandardAssay(GC)Min. 99.0%Optical PurityMin. 99.5%colorMax. 50aphaAcid ValueMax. 0.1%methanolMax. 0.5%Water content(Karl fisher)Max. 0.2%Density(25 °C)1.09Refractive Index(20 °C)1.410~1.418 2. Ethyl lactateDescription Colorless clear liquid, an ethyl ester of the DL-lactic acid that derives frombio-fermentation of sugar-like carbohydrate, it has a particular odor that is like rum, fruit and better, it is soluble in most organic solvents, but partly hydrolyzes when mixing with water. Product InformationTrade Name Ethyl DL-lactateCAS No. 97-64-3HS No. 2918110000Hazard Grade 3 (Packing group III)Molecular formula C5H10O3 Technical Index ItemStandardAssay(GC)Min. 99.0%colorMax. 20aphaAcid ValueMax. 1.0EthanolMax. 0.3Water content(Karl fisher)Max. 0.2Density(25 °C)1.030~1.038Refractive Index(20 °C)1.410~1.420
Lactic acid ester reagent called the cleaner of lactate in English.Lactic acid is also called 2 - hydroxy propionic acid and propanol acid, its characteristic is containing hydroxyl group in the molecule, so has good hydrophilicity.Carboxylic acid esters generated more commonly is insoluble in water, but the lactic acid ester has certain solubility in water.Commonly used lactic acid ester cleaner is ethyl lactate, due to lactic acid ester can be formed by hydroxyl hydrogen bond between molecules, so is higher than the boiling point of general esters, commonly used lactic acid ester reagent boiling point range (145 ~ 190 degrees Celsius) in so although combustible, but has good security.Lactic acid ester cleaning agent can be mixed with many organic solvent free, it to oily dirt and water-soluble dirt has very good strength, but also for metals by cleaning the surface has good wetting ability, can make the surface after cleaning has the very good hydrophilicity.Lactic acid ester detergent with a small loss of use, good economy, had no adverse effect on material to be cleaned, non-toxic, the advantages of easy biodegradation, is a kind of new type of ODS solvent cleaner alternative cleaning agent.It is widely used in the electronics industry, such as used for all kinds of CD, LCD monitor, magnetic head, chips, circuit boards, modules, cleaning;Can also be used for optical lenses, printing plates, printing ink, metal cleaning.The cleaning method has a dip, spray washing, hand washing, combination of ultrasonic cleaning, etc.Lactic acid ester reagent defect is dry is poorer, therefore should be adopted in the drying process in isopropyl alcohol such as methanol or replacement.In Japan at present already with lactic acid ester detergent used by the distillation recycling system and combination cleaning device for cleaning system of complete sets of equipment.
Photoresist is composed of the three main ingredients : the photosensitive resin, photosensitizer and solvent .Photosensitive resin after illumination, the exposure area can quickly produce light curing reaction, making the physical properties of the material, especially for obvious changes such as solubility, affinity.Obtained with the appropriate solvent, solvent to soluble part, get the required image.Photoresist is widely used for printed circuit and integrated circuit manufacturing and printing plate-making process.Photoresist technology is complex, more varieties.According to the principle of its chemical reaction mechanism and the development, can be divided into two categories, negative photoresist and positive photoresist.Light form the unsolvable matter is negative photoresist;On the other hand, for some solvent is not to be dissolved, light into soluble substances is the positive photoresist.Based on the chemical structure of photosensitive resin, photoresist can be divided into three types.Type (1) light polymerization, the alkene monomers, under the effect of light generates free radicals, free radical monomer polymerization by any further, the generated polymers, has the characteristics of the form as.(2) light decomposition model, using materials containing azide quinone compounds, light, can produce light decomposition reaction, from oil soluble into water soluble, can be made into positive photoresist.(3) light crosslinking type, using polyvinyl alcohol lauric acid ester as photosensitive material, such as under the action of light, a double bond in the molecule is opened, and between the chain and chain crosslinking, forming a mesh structure of insoluble, and corrosion resistant effect, it is a kind of typical negative photoresist. Ethyl Lactate is a good solvent during the production of photoresist. Because Ethyl Lactate is biodegrdable, environmentally, especially, it can replace traditionaly solvent , like PMA,PM, NMP. In the process of remove residual gum, Ethyl Lactate can make strong solvency ,easily dissolve the residual photoresist.